Stacey Burks

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Spring 2019




       PHIL 6, Introduction to Logic

       Recommended:  Reading Level III, English level II

       Transfer Status:  CSUC, UC

       Three hours lecture


        A study of traditional logic with both deductive and inductive reasoning, syllogisms, and fallacies.  Practical application of basic skills in orderly and accurate reasoning and communication.





       A.    Major Objectives

       Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:


       A. Evaluate, analyze and criticize arguments.

       B. Organize beliefs and ideas in an orderly manner.

       C. Distinguish and evaluate deductive and inductive arguments.

       D. Identify and label various informal fallacies.





       B.    Unit Titles


               1.    Introduction

                      a.     arguments vs. expositions

                      b.     truth of premises vs. validity of inference

                      c.     logical necessity vs. empirical necessity

              d.   deduction vs. induction


       2.     Language:  Meaning and Definition

                           a.   intension and extension

                        b.    connotation and denotation


3.      Informal Fallacies

a.     Fallacies of relevance: appeal to force, abusive ad hominem,

         circumstantial ad hominem, accident, straw man, missing the point red

         herring, etc.


               b.  Fallacies of weak induction: appeal to ignorance, hasty generalization,

                    false cause, slippery slope, weak analogy, etc.


                        c. Fallacies of presumption, ambiguity, and grammatical analogy: complex

      question, begging the question, equivocation, false dichotomy, sup-

      pressed evidence, etc.


4.     Categorical Proposition

       a.  The square of opposition

                      b.  Translating and evaluating arguments in ordinary language 



                5.   Categorical Syllogisms

                      a.     categorical propositions

                      b.     immediate inferences

                      c.     logical analogies as means of proving invalidity

                      d.     Venn diagrams

                      e.     rules of inference


                       Other deductive arguments: modus ponens, modus tollens, hypothetical syllogisms, disjunctive syllogism, and dilemma.





       A.    Lecture


           B.   Discussion


        C.  Group Work





        A.    Homework - you will be expected to put in a minimum of six hours of work outside of class.  While homework is required, I will not be collecting all of it.  Rather, I will randomly ask for homework and select 5 problems to grade.  For those who get all 5 correct, 2 pts extra credit will be added to the quiz that covers the same material. Understand that you will not pass the quizzes if you do not do the homework.


        B.   Quizzes - 9/12 – there will be a quiz at the end of every section of our text.  The dates for these will be posted on the website.  One to two of the Logic quizzes may be dropped when averaging final grade - to be discussed. Quizzes from any handouts will consist of essay questions in which you’ll be expected to answer in essay format. Quizzes will only be given once I feel all have had a reasonable chance to go over the homework and had all their questions answered.  Therefore, it is your responsibility to check web site for quiz dates as I will not be announcing them during class time.  Quizzes will be posted at least a week in advance and will only be changed if I feel students aren’t yet adequately prepared.


        C.    There will be one midterm (chpts. 1 &3) and a final examination (chpts. 4 &5). Dates to be posted on web site. Details under grading.  It is your responsibility to check web site for all details pertaining to the midterm and final. No oral details will be announced either before or during the day of the exams. Failure to check this site for the specific details may result in a 10 (ten) point reduction to your total score. 


D.    Class Participation: Participation is critical to passing this class. It is also critical for the group work we will be doing.  During the first 8 weeks of class, any student who misses two consecutive days, without notifying me, will be dropped. Students may miss up to six hours without consequences to their final grade.  However, for every absences (1.5 hours) following, one half grade will be deducted from the student’s final grade.  For example, if a student had earned a “C” grade, the grade would be lowered to a “C-”.  Any student who misses 9 hours (this equals six classes) will be given an “F.”




        Concise Introduction to Logic, Hurley

             Twelfth Edition*



*We will be using the Logic text everyday.  If you are waiting for financial aid to purchase the Logic text, you will be asked to Xerox the homework assignments from the reserved books held in the Library before coming to class and until you can buy the text.  Not having a book should not be the reason you fail this class and having the homework in front of you as we go over the homework is imperative.  You may share a book outside of class, but everyone should have their own book or Xeroxed copies of the homework when we go over it.




                Cheating of any kind will not be tolerated.  Any student who is discovered

                representing someone else’s work as his/hers will receive a failing grade in the

                course and be subjected to further disciplinary action as outlined in the Student

      Handbook. *


VII.   CELL PHONES, iPods, laptops, Google glass,  Apple watches, etc.

 Talking to your neighbor during class lectures, texting or visiting social networking sites and frequently leaving during class time is unprofessional. It is disruptive on a lot of levels and cannot be tolerated.  Therefore, Cell phones, iPods, video games, etc.,

must be turned off once class begins. No text messaging.   Should your phone ring during class, your phone alarm go off or you’re found to be text messaging, five points will be deducted from the next immediate quiz of major exam.  A repeat infraction will result in disciplinary action as deemed appropriate by the Dean of Student Affairs.  Cell phones MAY NOT be used to access the web site during class time.  Cell phones may not be used to take photos of student’s notes during class time.  Do not download the text onto your phone as phones are not allowed to be used during class and we will be using the Logic text daily.


Students who feel the need to leave while class is in session will be asked to leave their phone at their desk.  Leaving to answer texts is both disruptive and unprofessional.  Should there be time to start homework in class, that is what will be expected—the time is not to be used as break time or text time.  Should you be expecting an emergency text, please see me before class.


Laptops and tablets may be used for taking notes, but instructor retains the right to ask to see one’s laptop/tablet screen upon request.  Anyone using a laptop/tablet for any other purpose than accessing homework or taking notes will lose his/her laptop/tablet privileges for the remainder of the semester.  Those who wish to use laptops or tablets, etc., must sit up front. Laptops/tablets must remain off during all quizzes and until everyone has finished taking the quiz.



         Roll will be taken every day.  If any student enters class after roll has been taken, it

         is up to the student at the end of the class to inform the instructor that he/she came

         in late.  If the student fails to do so, the student will be shown as having been

         absent for that day. Excused absences will be determined case by case.  Notes from

         physicians, lawyers, etc., will help in determining whether an absence will be considered

         excused. Quizzes, midterms, etc., will not be accepted late.  NO EXCEPTIONS. In 

         the event that you will be absent on a due-date, it is up to the student to make

         arrangements with the instructor to get the work in prior to actual due date.   In the event

         that an absence is deemed excused and the student missed a quiz or mid-term, the student

         will make up the work on his/her first day back after the absence.  As mentioned above, roll

         will be taken at the beginning of every class day.  If a quiz is to be given, it will be given

         immediately after roll.  Any student who is late on a quiz day will be asked to wait

         outside until everyone has finished the quiz.  Failure to be on time for a quiz results

         in a failure to take the quiz. An exception will be made in the event that the school’s

         busses are late.  It will be the only exception.   If you know you will be missing a quiz due

         to an unexcused absence (attending a wedding, taking a personal day, family reunion,

         extended weekend, etc., you may take the quiz you would otherwise miss in advance.  You

         must notify the instructor (via email) two days in advance to ensure the instructor brings the

         quiz to the tutorial center.  Understand that all absences, whether excused or otherwise, can

        affect your final grade (see participation above).


        Student athletes who will be missing a quiz due to a sporting event must notify the instructor

        48 hours prior to the quiz date that will be missed.  Student athletes must also present the

        instructor with their team’s schedule of activities.  Those who turn in their schedules shall

       receive an excused absence on his/her game day.  Those who do not shall receive an

       unexcused absence.





         IX.    GRADING

a.     Although all work will be graded with letter grades, all letter grades are

      equal to points.  For example:  “A” = 10 points, “B” = 8 points, “C” = 5,

     "C-" = 4 points, etc. See end of syllabus for details on how I calculate grades.


      The Logic quizzes will count as 1/3 of your entire grade. The mid-term and final

      will each  equal 1/3 of your grade.  The first  midterm will cover chapters one and

      three,  the final, chapters, four and five.

      * see end of doc for more details on calculating your grade


b.     Any student who earns A’s on all the Logic quizzes prior to the midterm is exempt from taking the midterm. Any student who earns all A’s with the exception of one B on all the quizzes prior to midterm is also exempt from taking the midterm.  A student must earn all A’s on the Logic quizzes prior to final to waive taking the final.  However, if there are fewer than 4 quizzes, this waiver will not apply.



****   WARNING:  discussions may veer into areas that conflict with your own values/beliefs.  While the instructor takes no positions on volatile issues, we will look at them to address how well they are argued.  Weak arguments will be exposed; some may center around issues you feel strongly about.  If you feel that you cannot handle such potential exposures, this class may not be for you.


ALSO—adult language may occasionally be used.  Some topics may prove to be triggers for students so it is up to the student to discuss this with the instructor within the first two weeks of class.  Issues of race, religion, gender identity, cosmetic surgery (including implants), guns, obesity, etc., may arise and if these (or any other such topics) are triggers, it is your responsibility to let the instructor know.  The instructor cannot be held accountable for student triggers if the instructor is not forewarned.




During the first eight weeks of class, any student who misses more classes than

the class meets in a given week will be dropped.  If a student has

compelling reasons for missing class, it is up to the student to notify the instructor

        so that s/he isn’t dropped. After the eighth week, a student will receive a letter

        grade for the class unless he or she can demonstrate a serious and compelling reason

        for withdrawing from class.  Serious and compelling reasons does not include failing

        the class.


        As noted below:

The following situations may reasonably be defined as "serious and compelling" for justifying late withdrawal:

a.   An extended absence due to a verifiable accident, illness, or personal problem; for example, a one or two week absence with a doctor's written excuse.

b.   An extended absence due to a death in the family.  This applies to absences exceeding a week due to family affairs that must be attended to by the student.

c.   A necessary change in employment status which interferes with the student's ability to attend class. 
This change in status must be verified in writing by the student's employer.

d.   Other unusual or very special cases, to be considered on their own merit.


                                   The following situations would NOT fall under the intent of "serious and compelling”:

a.   Grade anticipated in class not sufficiently high or student is doing failing work.

b.   Failure to attend class, complete assignments or take a test.

c.   Dissatisfaction with course material, instructional method or instructor.

d.   Class is harder than expected.

e.   Pressure of other classes, participation in social activities or simple lack of motivation.

f.      Change of major.


XI   The Center for Academic Success (CAS)   

The Center for Academic Success (CAS) provides academic support services to Butte College students. It is located inside the Learning Resource Center on main campus and in CHC 230 and 231 at the Chico Center. CAS on main campus is open Monday through Thursday, 8:00 a.m. to 5:00, and Friday 8:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Hours for CAS at the Chico Center are Monday through Thursday, 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m., and Wednesday evening, 6:00 p.m. to 8:30 p.m.  Services are free for all currently enrolled Butte College students, who check in when accessing CAS services. For more information, go to

FREE TUTORING is available in many subjects. No appointment is necessary.  Tutoring is also offered at the Chico Center in CHC 230.

TUTOR-SUPPORTED DROP-IN COMPUTER LABS are located in LRC 224 (inside CAS), LRC 143, and CHC 231.

CAS CRITICAL SKILLS WORKSHOPS are scheduled throughout the semester.  Workshop schedules are available at the CAS front desk, in CHC 230, and online. A Critical Skills for College Success ½-unit course is also offered (EDUC 10/110/210).

GROUP STUDY ROOMS inside CAS on the main campus are available for student use and can be reserved.

     CAS TIP SHEETS are online resources that offer specific information on many

            topics, including writing skills, such as rules of grammar and punctuation, as well

as reading and study skills.



                                         Butte College Academic Honesty





Butte College Plagiarism/Cheating Policy:  The board recognizes that as citizens of the Butte-Glenn Community College District, students are free, individually and collectively, to express their interests. However, these privileges carry with them an obligation to respect the rights and privileges of others, as well as any obligation to abide by the rules and regulations set down by the College, its various agencies, and agents.


The Superintendent/President is authorized to suspend any student for good cause for an indefinite period of time as prescribed by code.  The Board of Trustees will be annually apprised of any student suspensions.  In order to protect student rights and insure appropriate student conduct, the Superintendent is directed to develop appropriate procedures to implement this policy.


Administrative Procedure:  Disciplinary action involving students is primarily the responsibility of the Vice President for Student Services.  Disciplining students is a means of protecting the rights and privileges of each member of the campus community, as well as protecting College property.


The procedures described herein are designed to protect students from the imposition of unfair disciplinary action.  It is the right of every student to request due process.  In order to file an appeal against disciplinary action, the individual must be currently enrolled or must have been enrolled at the time of the alleged violation.



As legally required, students are advised that the following behavior will constitute good and sufficient cause for disciplinary action to be initiated. 

Š       Dishonesty:  such as cheating, plagiarism, or knowingly furnishing false information to the College. 

Š                Misconduct:  reference Butte College Catalog for information.                                         


Butte College Accommodations

 Butte-Glenn Community College does not permit discrimination or harassment in its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, ancestry, sex, gender, gender identification, sexual orientation, disability, age, religion, physical and/or mental disability, medical condition, veteran status, marital status or any other characteristic protected by institutional policy and, state, local or federal law. The College values fairness and equity for all members of the College community. The following individuals have been designated to handle inquiries regarding the non-discrimination policies and Section 504 discrimination:


                  Stephanie Jimenez                                                                                             Chris Little


                 Interim Title IX Coordinator

Executive Director-Human Resources

                 Student Administrative Services (SAS) Building 246

Student Administrative Services (SAS) 344





Academic Accommodations:

Students have the right to request reasonable modifications to college requirements, services, facilities or programs if a student’s documented disability imposes an educational limitation or impedes access to such requirements, services, facilities or programs. A student with a disability who will be requesting a modification, accommodation, or access to an auxiliary aid is required and responsible for identifying themselves to the instructor who should refer the student to the Disabled Student Programs and Services (DSPS) office. Students can consult or request assistance from the DSPS Office regarding specific modifications, accommodations or use of auxiliary aids and will be required to meet timelines and procedural requirements established by the DSPS Office. You can contact the Office of Disabled Student Programs and Services (DSPS) located in SAS 238 on the main campus.  An appointment with DSPS can be scheduled by calling 895-2455 [voice] or 895-2308 [TTY] or email at The DSPS office is open (M/W/TH), 7:30am-3:30pm; (T), 9:00am – 3:30pm; and (F) 8:00am-11:30am.



Alternate Media:  This publication is available in alternate media.  Students with a print disability — a visual limitation or reading difficulty that limits access to traditional print material — caused by a learning disability, blindness, disease, medication, or physical condition may request printed materials in an alternate media format, with appropriate documentation of disability. Examples of alternate media formats include: e-text (e.g., text on CD), audiotape, MP3 file, large print, tactile graphics, and Braille. Contact DSPS for alternate media requests by calling 895-2455 [voice] or 895-2308 [TTY] or email at The DSPS office is open (M/W/TH), 7:30am-3:30pm; (T), 9:00am – 3:30pm; and (F), 8:00am-11:30am.


Updated by the Office for Student Learning & Economic Development in collaboration with the Academic Senate, Admissions and Records and the Office for Student Services.  On 12/04/13 we created two documents: (1) the new Attendance Guidelines and (2) this existing Academic Honesty/Accommodations.  Both can be found in the Faculty Information Packet in MyBC – Christie Boggs



Butte College Attendance Guidelines:

Required Syllabus Attachment Updated Spring 2014


Students are always responsible for understanding their instructors’ individual attendance policies and dropping or withdrawing themselves from courses they are no longer attending.

A)    Students can drop themselves through Census Date and may withdraw themselves through the 50% point. This can be done online, in person, or via Telereg.

B)    Students who cease attending after the 50% point should discuss with their instructor or a counselor the possibility of withdrawal for serious and compelling reasons.


Faculty must include in their syllabus a clear attendance policy (or participation policy for online classes) and are required to, in a timely manner, report the last date of attendance of any student who ceases attending a course at any point in the semester. Best practice would be to report any students who have not attended class or participated in an academic activity for two or more weeks without communication.

    A)  Instructors report that students have ceased attending through Web Drop Entry in MyBC.

    B)  Instructors must provide a last date of attendance – this should be the last time the student:

i)   was physically present

ii) submitted an academic assignment

iii)   took an exam or quiz

iv)   participated in an interactive tutorial or computer assisted instruction

v) participated in an online discussion about academic matters

vi)   initiated contact with a faculty member to ask a question of an academically related matter pertinent to the course


    C)  For online courses participation is the only effective means to demonstrate attendance (logging in to Blackboard is insufficient for establishing a last date of attendance – the student must demonstrate that he or she participated in course activity). See details on the Butte College Distance Learning page.

Instructors have the option to report a last date of attendance, regardless of whether the student consents, for any student who exceeds the allowable number of absences as defined in the instructor’s syllabus or has not met participation requirements as defined in an online instructor’s syllabus (see note about online courses in point “C” above).


When students remove themselves from the course, the date the student reports the drop or withdrawal to Admissions and Records becomes the last date of attendance.


When instructors report the “last date of attendance,” the date provided by the instructor (not the date of the report) will be the last date of attendance.


The “FW – Failing Withdrawal/Stopped Attending” is issued when a student ceases attending after the 8th week or 50% point of the course, but before the final, making academic evaluation of student performance not viable.


Students will be issued a “NS – No Show,” “DR – Drop,” “W – Withdrawal,” or “FW – Failing Withdrawal/Stopped Attending” based on the last date of attendance recorded and according to the following timeframes:


(***Note: When the last date attended is submitted via grade roster, it will always result in an “FW”)


Withdrawals recorded during weeks 9-12 or 51% through 75% require a “serious and compelling reason” as stated in the catalog. These drops require an instructor signed drop card be submitted to Admissions and Records. Otherwise, disenrollment during this timeframe will result in an “FW”. Students wishing to withdrawal from all courses for serious and compelling reasons should make an appointment with a counselor.








A     10

A-      9

B+     9

B        8

B-      7

C+     6

C        5

C-      4

D+    3

D      3

D-     2

F       1





There are 3 components that compromise your total grade:


1.    Logic Quizzes

2.    Midterm

3.    Final



Component 1.


Let’s say there are a total of 8 quizzes and the grades earned were:


A, B, C-, B, D, B+, A, A


I will take the point equivalents using the above key and add the total points together.  In the example above, my total point equivalent would be:  62


Next I would divide 64 by the total number of quizzes taken—in this case, 8, which would give me a final quiz score of: 7.75


Component 2


Then I’d take your midterm score—say you earned a B for 8 points and then


Component 3


I’d take your Final grade—say you earned a B- for 7 points


Determining Course Grade


Now I add up all the component points (7.75  + 8 +7=22.75)


The last step would be to take the total points (22.75) and divide it by 3 (the total number of components) to end up with your final score.


22.75 divide by 3=7.58


This would give you a “B and for the course, a “B.”


Rounding up—Should your total points end up on a cusp (like 6.5), I will look to see whether you handed in homework on the days I collected it to determine whether to round up.  Those who did the homework will earn a “B,” those who did not will earn a “C.”  The exception to this is with anything that falls below a total of 4 points.  You must get a minimum of 4 total points to earn a passing grade.  So—even if you end up with 3.68 total points, I will not round up to 4.


Please see me if you still find this too confusing.